Metabolic syndrome leading to type 2 diabetes mellitus in hypertriacylglycerolemic rat fed with high-fat diet or high-fat-high-fructose diet

Authors: Dominika Micháliková 1,2    Barbara Tyukos Kaprinay 1    Boris Lipták 1    Karol Švík 1    Lukáš Slovák 1    Ružena Sotníková 1    Vladimír Knezl 1    Štefan Bezek 1    Zdenka Gáspárová 1   
1 Institute of Experimental Pharmacology and Toxicology, Centre of Experimental Medicine, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Slovakia    2 Department of Pharmacology, Jessenius Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University, Martin, Slovakia   
Year: 2020
Section: Cellular metabolism, physiology, molecular biology and genetics
Abstract No.: 2061
ISBN: 978-80-972360-6-9

Metabolic syndrome belongs to civilization diseases. The risk of developing a metabolic syndrome is conditioned by genetic factors in conjunction with bad lifestyle habits (Janczura a kol., 2015). It is diagnosed if a patient has at least three of the following metabolic complications: obesity, hypertension, high levels of LDL-cholesterol and triacylglycerols in the blood, low blood HDL-cholesterol levels, high fasting blood glucose or insulin resistance. High glucose and insulin resistance can lead to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). T2DM with other risk factors can further lead to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases (O´Neil a O´Driscoll, 2014). Therefore it is highly necessary to find a suitable model for subsequent drug testing which would affect several risk factors of the metabolic syndrome or its often fatal consequences simultaneously.

The aim of the study was to investigate if administration of high-fat diet (HFD) or high-fat-high-fructose diet (HFFD) to Prague hereditary hypertriglyceridemic rats can induce signs of MetS and T2DM.

Our results show that blood pressure increased with age in hypertriacylglycerolemic rats and they had inheritedly elevated levels of triacylglycerols in blood. HDL-cholesterol was lower in hypertriacylglycerolemic rats than in Wistar rats. LDL-cholesterol and total cholesterol were significantly increased by the effects of both types of diets. An increase in blood glucose was caused by HFFD diet. The glucose tolerance test had a worse course caused by simultaneous increase in triacylglycerols and administration of both types of diet.

We assumed that hypertriacylglycerolemia in combination with HFD and especially HFFD leads to the development of MetS and also to changes in glucose metabolism indicating that it can lead to the development of T2DM and other complications. It is a suitable model for testing MetS and its pharmacotherapy.

Key words: rat, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease

This work was supported by the Slovak national grant VEGA 2/0054/15, VEGA 2/0120/19
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